Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including cooking, fresh eating and cider production. Domestic apples are generally propagated by grafting, although wild apples grow readily from seed.
- Apple juice benefits – Apple juice concentrate has been found to increase the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, providing a potential mechanism for the prevention of the decline in cognitive performance that accompanies dietary and genetic deficiencies and aging. Other studies have shown an alleviation of oxidative damage and cognitive decline after the administration of apple juice to human test patients.
- Has cancer-protective compounds – There is evidence from laboratory experiments that apples possess phenol compounds which may be cancer-protective and demonstrate antioxidant activity. The predominant phenol phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2. Apples contain relatively low amounts of vitamin C, but are a rich source of other antioxidant compounds.
- Has high fiber content – helps regulate bowel movements and may reduce the risk of colon cancer. They may also help in conditions with heart disease, weight loss, and can control cholesterol levels. The fiber contained in apples reduces cholesterol by preventing re-absorption (like most fruits and vegetables).
- Reduce risks of certain diseases – Research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer.
- Can be eaten raw or processed into other products – Apples can be canned or juiced. They are milled to produce apple cider (non-alcoholic, sweet cider) and filtered for apple juice. The juice can be fermented to make cider (alcoholic, hard cider), cider kin, and vinegar. Through distillation, various alcoholic beverages can be produced, such as applejack, Calvados, and apfelwein. Pectin and apple seed oil may also be produced.
- Important ingredient in desserts and meat dishes – Apples are an important ingredient in many desserts, such as apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. They are often eaten baked or stewed, and they can also be dried and eaten or reconstituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid) for later use. Pur?ed apples are generally known as apple sauce. Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly. They are also used (cooked) in meat dishes.
- Turns brown after exposure to oxygen (food merchant’s problem) - Sliced apples turn brown after exposure to air due to the conversion of natural phenol substances into melanin upon exposure to oxygen. This phenomenon is undesirable for food merchants since the apples can taste awful after it is exposed to oxygen. Also, the color can influence an individual’s appetite for the fruit.
- Can develop Apple Allergy – One form of apple allergy is called birch-apple syndrome. The allergy is caused by a protein in apples that is similar to birch pollen, and people affected by this protein can also become allergic to other fruits, nuts and vegetables. Reactions, which are called oral allergy syndrome (OAS), generally involve itching and inflammation of the mouth and throat, but in rare cases can also include life-threatening anaphylaxis.